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Tuesday, December 31, 2019



The language of Assam located on the eastern border in the series of modern Indian Aryan languages ​​is called the Assamese.
  1. Assamese is the official language of the Assam province of India and the principal language is spoken in Assam. The number of speakers is more than 15 million.
  2. In terms of the linguistic family, it is related to the Arya language family and it is closely related to Bangla, Maithili, Oriya, and Nepali. In terms of Giersen's classification, it is the language of the eastern community of the outer sub-continent, but it has a place in the Oriental community in the classification of Sunitikumar Chatterjee. Like Oriya and Bangla, Assamese also has its origin in Prakrit and Apabhramsa.
  3. Although the origins of the Assamese language are believed to date from the seventeenth century, the display of literary interests began in the thirteenth century with the Drona Parva (Mahabharata) of Rudra Kandali and the Ramayana of Madhav Kandali. The Vaishnavi movement gave rise to provincial literature. Shankar Dev (179–156) kept this movement alive in his long life-journey with lyrical poetry, drama, and songs.
  4. The Bengal is to the west of the Assamese region in terms of the border. Languages ​​of many different families are spoken in other directions. Of these, Tibetan, Burmese, and Khasi are prominent. The deep impact of these border languages ​​can be seen in the basic nature of the Assamese. Assamese is not the only dialect in its state. It is primarily the language of the plains.
ক   খ   গ   ঘ   ঙ   চ   ছ   জ   ঝ   ঞ 
ট   ঠ   ড   ঢ   ণ   ত  থ   দ   ধ   ন   প 
ফ   ব   ভ   ম   য   ৰ   ল   ৱ   শ   ষ   স  
হ   ক্ষ   ড়  ঢ়   য়


For a long time, there has been an attempt to prove the Assamese a subpoena of Bengali. Compared to the Assamese, people have been creating this kind of perception by looking at the versatile spread of Bengali language and literature. But from the linguistic point of view, the parallel development of Bengali and Assamese can be easily seen. There may be similarities between the two due to Magadhi abrasions emanating from the same source, but they cannot be proved to be a dialect of another.


Assamese is surrounded by many non-Aryan languages, is located on the eastern border in a series of Indian Aryan languages. Being a border language at this level, words from many sources of non-Aryan languages ​​are found in its vocabulary. Three of these sources are relatively more prominent:

(1) Austro-Asiatic :
  • Khasi.
  • Kollari.
  • Malayan.
(2) Tibetan-Burmese-Bodo
(3) Thai-Ahom

In the context of this mixed group of terms, it would be appropriate to clarify that Khasi, Bodo, and Thai elements have been borrowed in the Assamese, but the mixture of Malayan and Kolar elements is a result of the traditional mixture of Muladhara in these languages. The influence of non-Aryan languages ​​can also be seen in many place names in Assam. Many place names of Austric, Bodo and Ahom are found in the backdrop of the naming of villages, cities, and rivers. The Ahoms' place names are mainly in the names given to the rivers.


The Assamese script is basically an evolved form of Brahmi. He has a close resemblance to the Bengal. The earliest available form of the script is the copperplate of Bhaskaravarman dated to 610 AD. But since then the script has undergone a variety of changes from modern form through "Nagari".


The systematic form of the Assamese language from the 13th and 14th centuries can also be seen in the "Chariyapad" of Buddhist Siddhas. The time of "Chariyapad" has been fixed by scholars between 600 and 1000 CE. Some of the Siddhas, the authors of these couplets, had a close relationship with the Kamrup state. From the time of "Charyapad", a variety of oral literature was created in the Assamese language from the 12th century. Manikonvar-Phulkonvar-Geet, Dakshvakra, Tantra Mantra, etc. are some of the forms of this oral Sahi.

The Assamese language is different from its predecessor, a distinct dialect, often from the 18th century. Keeping in view the linguistic features, three periods of Assamese development can be considered:


From the 14th century to the end of the 16th century. This period can then be divided into two eras: (a) pre-Vaishnav "era and (aa) Vaishnav. All the writers of this era have developed their own natural form of language, although it is completely free from some ancient influences. It is not possible. In terms of grammar, there is not enough uniformity in the language. But these errors are not found in the language of the first important Assamese writer Shankaradeva (born - 1449). Clutter should protect the ends here. The majority of Brajabuli experiments Sankaradeva compositions.


From the 17th century to the early 19th century. The prose language of the court of Ahom kings is predominant in this era. These prose have been called Buranji. In Buranji literature there are philosophies of the initial state of historiography. It is different from previous religious literature in terms of trends. The language of Buranjis is much closer to the modern form.


Since the early 19th century. The modern Assamese period begins with the translation of the Bible into Assamese prose published by American baptized priests in 1819 AD. Being the center of the mission in eastern Assam, the dialect of eastern Assam in its language was considered the basis. In 1846, a monthly paper "Arunodaya" was published by the Mission. The first grammar of the Assamese was printed in 1848 and the first Assamese English Dictionary in 1867.


The history of Assamese 'elegant and written literature is divided into five periods:

(1) Vaishnavite period: 1200-1449 AD,
(2) Vaishnavkal: 1449-1650 AD,
(3) Prose, Buranji period: 1650-1926 AD,
(4) Modern period: 1026-1947 AD,
(5) Post-independence period: 1947 AD.

You can divide the poetry stream of Assamese literature from the 16th century to the 19th century in six parts-
  1. Translation of epics and Puranas
  2. Stories of poetry or mythology
  3. Song
  4. Absolute and utilitarian poetry
  5. Poetry based on biographies
  6. Poetic collection
The traditional poetry of the Assamese was confined to the upper class. Bhattadeva (1557–1834) gave a structured form to Assamese prose literature. Damodardeo wrote major biographies. Purushottam Thakur worked on grammar. Not until three decades after the eighteenth century did special changes appear in the literature. Assamese literature remained dominated by Bangla for forty years thereafter. Chandra Kumar Aggarwal (1858-1937), Lakshminath Bezbaruva (14-1734), and Hemachandra Goswami (182-1726) contributed to the life of Assamese. It was from these people that Jonaki, the monthly magazine that started the shadowy movement in the Assamese. Nineteenth-century novelist Padmanabha Gohanibaruva and Rajinikanth Bardalai wrote historical novels. The names of Devachandra Talukdar and Bina Baruva figure prominently in the field of social novels. After independence, Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya was awarded the Jnanpith Award for the novel Mrityunjaya. Many novels have been written in this language, both regional and biographical. The poems and prose of the 60s and 50s also appear to be influenced by Marxist ideology.


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